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        全球先進生物能源資訊 » 新聞資訊 » 國際資訊 » 正文行業新聞 國際資訊 專家學者 技術交流 政策法規 展會動態 

        立陶宛:新時代生物質交易系統-生物質是一種商品

        放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2019-04-22  來源:全球先進生物能源資訊  瀏覽次數:742

        在立陶宛,供暖季是半年。因此,熱能是該國最常見的能源消耗形式也就不足為奇了。區域供熱系統(集中式網絡為所有客戶提供約50%的熱量)產生超過9TWh的熱能。根據2017年的數據,集中式網絡中69%的熱量是使用生物質生產的。到2020年,該國的戰略目標仍是生物質能集中供熱達到80%。

        In Lithuania, the heating season is half a year. So, it is not surprising that heat energy is the most common form of energy consumption in the country. The district heating system (the centralized network provides heat for about 50 per cent of all customers) generates more than nine terawatt hours of heat energy. According to 2017 data, 69 per cent of heat in the centralized network is produced using biomass. The country’s political goal remains to reach 80 per cent by 2020.

        生物質是立陶宛的戰略能源。因此,為了建立透明和公平的市場價格,政客們轉向了已經在市場上運營的電力和天然氣交易平臺。立陶宛電力市場運營商Baltpool不得不創建一個交易平臺,成為生物質交易所運營商。

        Biomass is a strategic energy resource in Lithuania. Therefore, it is natural that, in order to establish a transparent and fair market price, politicians have turned to electricity and natural gas trading platforms that are already operating on the market. Lithuanian electricity market operator Baltpool was obliged to create a trading platform and become a biomass exchange operator.

         

        生物質交易所

        通過創建新的交易模型克服的主要挑戰包括:

        The main challenges that were overcome by creating a new trading model included:

         

        •標準化產品。木屑顆粒市場已經標準化多年,但立陶宛使用的主要生物質產品是木片。在產品規格的制定過程中,對大多數鍋爐房產品進行了審查,并對四種最常用的產品進行了凈化。實踐證明,四種產品幾乎涵蓋了客戶的整體需求。目前,生物質交換交易四種木屑、三種木屑顆粒和一種泥炭產品。決定燃料質量的主要參數是水分含量、灰分含量、熱值以及氯和硫含量。

        • Standardized products. The wood pellets market has been standardized for many years, but the main biomass product used in Lithuania is wood chips. During the development of product specifications, most boiler house products were reviewed, and the four most commonly used ones were purified. As practice has shown, four products cover almost the entire demand of customers. Currently, the biomass exchange trades four wood chip, three wood pellet, and one peat product. The main parameters determining the fuel quality are moisture content, ash content, calorific value, and chlorine and sulphur content.

         

        •生物質市場中沒有現有的能量傳輸系統。電力和天然氣擁有傳輸系統運營商,不僅以相同的成本向消費者提供能源資源,而且還補償未交付的數量(平衡)。Baltpool假設傳輸系統基于高速公路的道路網絡。每個供應商都可以指出其傳輸系統的成本(生物質物流成本),這些成本包含在銷售的生物燃料的最終價格中。

        •There is no existing energy transmission system in the biomass market. Electricity and natural gas have a transmission system operator that not only delivers energy resources at the same cost to consumers but also compensates for the undelivered amount (balancing). Baltpool presumes that the transmission system is based on the road network of motorways. Each supplier can indicate the costs of its transmission system (biomass logistics costs), which are included in the final price of the biofuel sold.

         

        •生物質的質量檢驗、交付和驗收程序的標準化。運營商詳細確定雙方的權利和義務,以平衡它。

        • Standardization of procedures for quality inspection, delivery, and acceptance of biomass. The operator determines the rights and duties of both parties in detail in order to balance it.

         

        •參與者的分類。為了在市場上創造最大的供應和履行義務,有必要為參與者提供不同的類別,因為并非每個人都能履行類似的義務。例如:長期交易只能由最高類別的參與者不受限制; 或者所有參與者都可以在SPOT市場進行交易。

        •Classification of participants. In order to create maximum supply and fulfilment of obligations in the market, it was necessary to give participants different categories because not everyone can fulfil similar obligations. For example: long-term transactions can only be made unrestricted by the highest category of participants; or all participants can trade in the SPOT market.

         

        交易類型:公開拍賣。這種方式讓我們放棄了黑盒子拍賣,創造了透明公平的市場價格。向交易平臺提交訂單的參與者提供現金或銀行擔保。目前,有大約500萬歐元計價的擔??梢詮浹a潛在的合同解約。應該注意的是,所有合同都已執行,并且不使用抵押品。

        Trading type: open auction. This way has allowed us to abandon the black box auction lottery and create a transparent and fair market price. Participants submitting orders to the trading platform provide warranty in cash or a bank guarantee. At present, there are about five million euro-denominated guarantees to compensate for potential contractual discharges. It should be noted that all contracts are executed, and collaterals are not used.

        生物質交易的成功在很大程度上是由于小供應商開始參與生物質招標,其活動之前由于買家不愿與小企業建立商業關系而受到限制。由于買家的交易數量大幅增加,Baltpool還推出了允許管理大量交易的模塊 - 生物質質量、交貨一致性、結算指示、交貨時間表以及市場中重要事件的發布。

        The success of the biomass exchange was due, in large part, to the fact that small suppliers began to participate in biomass tenders, whose activity was previously restricted as a result of buyers’ unwillingness to have commercial relations with small players. Because the number of transactions for buyers has increased considerably, Baltpool also introduced modules that allow the administration of a large number of transactions— the biomass quality, alignment of the deliveries, settlement instructions, schedule for delivery, and publication of essential events in the market.

         

        2018年,立陶宛生物質交易所完成了大約6,000筆交易,在某些情況下,買家每年有50家不同的供應商。由于交易所創造了SPOT市場,超過一半的交易在那里交易。

        In 2018, about 6,000 transactions were concluded in the Lithuanian biomass exchange, and in some cases, buyers had 50 different suppliers per year. As the exchange has created the SPOT market, more than half of the deals are being traded there.

         

        在過去五年中,消費者的熱量價格下降了30%,這主要是由于天然氣轉向更便宜的生物質,以及透明市場的出現導致生物質價格下降。

        The price of heat for consumers dropped by 30 per cent over the last five years, mainly due to a shift from natural gas to cheaper biomass and a fall in the price of biomass resulting from the emergence of a transparent market.

         

        立陶宛生物質交易所的運營商

        UAB Baltpool是立陶宛生物質交易所的運營商,有權組織生物質和其他產品的貿易。2018年,Baltpool開始處理熱能拍賣和木材交易系統。該公司還管理公共利益服務。

        UAB Baltpool is an operator of the Lithuanian Biomass Exchange which has the right to organize trade in biomass and other products. In 2018, Baltpool started to handle heat auctions and the timber trading system. The company also administers public interest services.

         

        Baltpool開始在國外市場開發。自2017年以來,拉脫維亞提供了類似的服務。Baltpool還與合作伙伴就丹麥和芬蘭的類似活動簽署了協議。此外,Baltpool積極尋找志同道合的合作伙伴,尋找合作和分享知識的機會。

        Baltpool started development in foreign markets. Since 2017, similar services have been provided in Latvia. Baltpool also signed an agreement with partners on similar activities in Denmark and Finland. In addition, Baltpool actively looks for like-minded partners for opportunities to cooperate and share knowledge.

         

         

        來源:Baltpool

        By Vaidotas Jonutis 

         

         

         

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